He points in the beginning what Leo Tolstoy said
"The most difficult subjects can be explained to the most slow-witted man if he has not formed any idea of them already; but the simplest thing cannot be made clear to the most intelligent man if he is firmly persuaded that he knows already.”
I didn't knew somebody wise has already made statement that is exactly what I have been thinking about. No doubt I am now losing extra wisdom tooth.
I used to and on many occasion still come across people who say "I know" but when they say that they are not careful enough what that might lead to when they say "I know". It is good to know and knowing is everything, but listening to others is also equally important. With the attitude to not listen or ignore with over confidence or persuade on a belief that you know it right and better than the other person will shun your ability to judge and make better decision. If a person chooses not to listen and continues to flap his wings of his righteousness would ultimately become outdated of what is right (for himself or for his fellows).
Ignorance is not bliss, Always be open to listen to others.
I used to call this thoughts eclipsing thinking, because such an attitude limits your thinking, devouring the person from the path of progress or may totally lead to misery.
I would want to be fierce and point what type of people and what people say when their thoughts eclipse thinking.
The first category of people are the one I want to point are those who are young learners with little experience but when they get an exposure and opportunity to sit among the smart and wise people, they develop the attitude of being masters of knowledge beholder, a bit of arrogance kicks in. We usually refer to these people smart ass in urban language.
The second one are those who are really smart and keeps good knowledge, they know but knowing shouldn't limits listening to others. And in a self setup of thoughts ignoring that the world around is evolving and with the change in information, knowledge requires updating. Those in this category are also on the fall of devouring themselves from the latest knowledge of the ever evolving world around and keeps the attitude but lesser than the first category. I really respect these people, since they are smart and I try to handle the conversation and get along with a delicacy.
The third category is of those people actually knows nothing but likes to speak a lot, these are the stupid liars who are fooling around the management or being outspoken and heard by everyone. Their tendency is just to prove themselves that the know everything but the truth is the either keep half knowledge of what they do or they don't know anything at all. I tend to stay away from these people and don't be friend be with them. (these are not the one what Leo Tolstoy or Ted Eagly was referring to.)
The fourth category of people are the one who are on high profile job designation, these people are more equipped with arrogance than attitude. But as I have noticed this fourth category is easier to be fooled by those people in third category. The only reason why their thinking is limited is their tendency that they know better ignoring the fact that the person they do not want to listen to may have right or new knowledge or information that could be useful.
Thanks for reading, if this was such a torture please don't hesitate swearing in the comment box below, I am also not very experienced in writing but I only write with what I have lived and experienced .